Temperature-dependent cell death patterns induced by functionalized gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy in melanoma cells
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising approach for cancer targeting therapy. However, the temperature-dependent killing of tumor cells in PTT remains unclear. In this study, we report necroptosis plays a role in the anti-tumor effects observed in gold nanorod (GNR)-mediated PTT in melanoma. We first synthesized gold nanorods with a targeting adaptor FA (GNRs-FA), which achieved high efficacy of targeted delivery to melanoma cells. We further demonstrated PTT, precipitated by GNRs-FA under the induction of near-infrared laser, was temperature-dependent. Furthermore, the photothermal killing of melanoma cells showed different patterns of cell death depending on varying temperature in PTT.
In a lower temperature at 43 °C, the percentages of apoptosis, necroptosis and necrosis of tumor cells were 10.2%, 18.3%, and 17.6%, respectively, suggesting the cell killing is ineffective at lower temperatures. When the temperature increased to 49 °C, the cell death pattern switched to necrosis dominant (52.8%). Interestingly, when the PTT achieved a moderate temperature of 46 °C, necroptosis was significantly increased (35.1%). Additionally, GNRs-FA/PPT-mediated necroptosis was regulated by RIPK1 pathway.
Taken together, this study is the first to demonstrate that temperature-dependent necroptosis is an important mechanism of inducing melanoma cell death in GNR-mediated PTT in addition to apoptosis and necrosis.
Yujuan Zhang, Xuelin Zhan, Juan Xiong, Shanshan Peng, Wei Huang, Rakesh Joshi, Ying Cai, Yanling Liu, Rong Li, Keng Yuan, Nanjin Zhou & Weiping Min